Geographical Area of Jammu and Kashmir

Geographical Area of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir
Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and
Lidder Valley. The Kashmir valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and
15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area. The Himalayas divide the
Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal range,
which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it
from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank
of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely
settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 metres
(6,070 ft) above sea-level, but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has
an average elevation of 10,000 feet (3,000 m). The Jhelum River is
the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir
valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing
through the region.
The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged
topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically
monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to
50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per months between January and
March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to
40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic
rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5
inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions
are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of
around 29 °C (84 °F). Across from the Pir Panjal range, the South
Asian monsoon is no longer a factor and most precipitation falls in the
spring from southwest cloudbands. Because of its closeness to the
Arabian Sea, Srinagar receives as much as 25 inches (635
millimetres) of rain from this source, with the wettest months being
March to May with around 85 millimetres (3.3 inches) per month.
Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm (4 inches) per year and
humidity is very low. All the rivers freeze over and locals actually do
river crossings during this period because their high levels from
glacier melt in summer inhibits crossing.

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